Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz

The Paris Gun (German: Paris-Geschütz / Pariser Kanone) was a type of German long-range siege gun used to bombard Paris during World War I between March and August of 1918. They were the largest pieces of artillery used during the war by barrel length, and are considered to be superguns.

The capabilities of the Paris Gun are not known with full certainty because of the total destruction of the weapon by the Germans in the face of the final Allied offensives. Figures stated for the weapon’s size, range, and performance varied widely depending on the source—not even the number of shells fired is certain.

“The gun was capable of firing a 106-kilogram (234 lb) shell to a range of 130 kilometers (81 mi) and a maximum altitude of 42.3 kilometers (26.3 mi)”

“At the start of its 182-second trajectory, each shell from the Paris Gun reached a speed of 1,640 meters per second (5,400 ft/s).”

The projectile was the first human-made object to reach the stratosphere. Writer and journalist Adam Hochschild put it this way: “It took about three minutes for each giant shell to cover the distance to the city, climbing to an altitude of 25 miles (40 km) at the top of its trajectory. This was by far the highest point ever reached by a man-made object, so high that gunners, in calculating where the shells would land, had to take into account the rotation of the Earth. For the first time in warfare, deadly projectiles rained down on civilians from the stratosphere”.  This reduced drag from air resistance, allowing the shell to achieve a range of over 130 kilometres (81 mi).

What brought Adam Hochschild to introduce some Coriolis factor to the equation? I cannot imagine any one using a slide rule to include rotation besides calculating latitude/longitude coordinates for direction, g, elevation, and tilt. 

Paris Gun

I am showing several trajectories between 10 to 55 degrees tilt. For simplification I omitted elevation of  barrel and g force (free fall calculator here https://www.angio.net/personal/climb/speed.html)

standard gravity is 9.80665 m/s2 (about 32.1740 ft/s2).

earth’s theoretic rotation = 72.3km in 3 minutes at 45 degree latitude

earth’s theoretic rotation = 48.2km in 2 minutes at 45 degree latitude

The Mach number at which an object is flying can be calculated by M = u /c

M is the Mach number, u is velocity of the moving object and c is the speed of sound at the given altitude

The speed of sound is 343 metres per second (1,125 ft/s; 1,235 km/h; 767 mph; 667 kn), or a kilometre in 2.91 s or a mile in 4.69 s

Paris Gun reached a speed of 1,640m/s (5,400 ft/s) “At the start of its 182-second trajectory, each shell from the Paris Gun reached a speed of 1,640 meters per second (5,400 ft/s).”

MACH 4.8 – that is supersonic. Ridiculous!

equatorial circumference is 40075.017 km =rotation per day (24 hrs) – or – 1670km/hr – or – 27.82 km/min – or – .46km/sec

@ 45 degree latitude, circumference = 34696km/24hours – or – 1445.67km/hr – or –  24.10km/min – or – .40km/sec – or – 401 m/sec

1,640m per second x 182 seconds = 298.48km + 72 km rotation of 180 seconds at latitude of 45 degree ….

PLEASE POINT OUT MISTAKES IN MY CALCULATIONS

The gun was fired from the forest of Coucy and the first shell landed on 21 March 1918 on the Quai de la Seine.

The actual gun mounting was found by the French air reconnaissance aviator Didier Daurat. The Paris gun emplacement was dug out of the north side of the wooded hill at Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique.  The gun was mounted on heavy steel rails embedded in concrete, facing Paris.

The gun was fired at an azimuth of 232 degrees (west-southwest) from Crépy-en-Laon, which was at a latitude of 49.5 degrees North.

The gun was taken back to Germany in August 1918 as Allied advances threatened its security. No guns were ever captured by the Allies. It is believed that near the end of the war they were completely destroyed by the Germans. One spare mounting was captured by American troops in Bruyères-sur-Fère, near Château-Thierry, but the gun was never found; the construction plans seem to have been destroyed as well.

Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the Germans were required to turn over a complete Paris Gun to the Allies, but they never complied with this.

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Notes

  1. For an instance of war-time naming of this gun as “Big Bertha”, see “Paris again Shelled by Long-Range Gun” (PDF). The New York Times. August 6, 1918. p. 3. Retrieved 2011-12-03.
  2. This overall weight of Paris Gun shells is not atypical for artillery of this calibre. As a comparison, World War 1-era, British BL 8-inch howitzer fired a 91 kg (201 lb) high-explosive shell. The 210mm shell fired by the World War 2-era 21 cm Kanone 39 weighed 135 kg (298 lb) and contained 18.8 kg (41 lb) of explosives (13.9% by weight).
  3. This was not an unreasonable assumption, as Zeppelins on night-time air-raids over the United Kingdom had previously used the tactic of cutting their engines when upwind of the target, then releasing their bombs as they silently drifted overhead.
  4. Position 49°31′40.43″N 3°18′17.57″E / 49.5278972°N 3.3048806°E

References

  1. Bull, Gerald V.; Murphy, Charles H. (1988). Paris Kanonen: The Paris Guns (Wilhelmgeschutze) and Project HARP. Herford: E. S. Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0304-2.
  2. Miller (1921) pg.737
  3. To End All Wars by Adam Hochschild c. 2011 Adam Hochschild(Houghton, Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company New York; 2011) pp.320 – 321
  4. Miller (1921) pg.742
  5. Major J. Maitland-Addison (July–September 1918). “The Long Range Guns” (PDF). The Field Artillery Journal (3).
  6. Miller (1921) pg.83
  7. Miller (1921) pg.723
  8. Miller (1921) pg.728
  9. Columbia Alumni News. Alumni Council of Columbia University (Vol. 10, No. 30). 1918. p. 937.
  10. Anne Cipriano Venzon (2 December 2013). The United States in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 436. ISBN 978-1-135-68446-4.
  11. Ford (2000), p.116
  12. Ford (2000), p.117

Bibliography

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paris gun.

Paris Nov. 13, 2015

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The painting in the bottom right in the Economist Magazine cover is the “Portrait of an Unknown Woman” also known as “La Belle Ferronnière” by Leonardo da Vinci owned by the Louvre alludes to a  legend of revenge in which the aggrieved husband intentionally infects himself to infect the wife of the king.

 


 

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Definition of Cosa Nostra – noun
1. a secret association engaged in organized crime in the U.S., modeled after and affiliated with the Mafia.
2. the branch of the Mafia that operates in the US
3. 1963, “the Mafia in America,” from Italian, literally “this thing of ours.”

Kameran Faily to Kerry Cassidy on Paris – I don’t agree entirely with his analysis. Hollande presence in the soccer stadium is too much of a coincidence. The description of the method of communication is much appreciated. link to Bible Gateway

Merkel’s presence in the Hannover soccer stadium was confirmed to be false. Witness testimony described ambulances (plural) entering into and exiting out of the soccer stadium in Hannover after it had been evacuated on Nov. 17th. Reports of explosives inside one of the ambulances were not officially confirmed by government officials. The tip was vague to include all vehicles with access. The Stern report reads convoluted citing the source of the warning had been an Israeli from Iraq. Hannover Allgemeinde reports “the leader of the 5 man terror group is German”, there is no substance to these reports. The soccer match was Germany-Netherlands.

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Redemption of the Devil was published on VICE YT channel on Jun 17, 2015

VICE presents The Redemption of the Devil, which follows Jesse as he gets ordained as a Catholic minister, begins an intense relationship with an ex porn star, explores the political arena, and fights for custody of his only child, all while preparing for the fervently awaited release of his first album since 2008 with childhood best friend Josh Homme, frontman of Queens of the Stone Age.

The film is directed by Alex Hoffman, an executive producer and head of music at Vice, as well as a long-term friend of the band. He founded Vice’s music TV channel, Noisey, on which Hughes once hosted a video series.  (Producers: Alex Hoffman, Zoey Roberts) source Director: Alex Hoffman IMDb Executive producer: Al Brown , Primary Citizenship: United Kingdom. Head of Film & Television, VICE UK, Head of Video, VICE UK, Supervising Producer, VICE UK VICE Media launched 1994, Vice Records or Vice Music was founded in 2002

VICE News launched 2013
In August 2014, Vice News sent reporter Medyan Dairieh to interact with ISIS members in the capital of Raqqa, Syria where he gained unique access to a group that is known for video taping the beheading of reporters. This achievement by Vice news was followed by controversy due to Vice’s uncommon access to the militant group. Vice News’ editor in chief denied accusations that there was collusion between Vice News and the Islamic State.

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The webpage of Eagles of Death Metal reroutes to EODM’s Facebook page. Webpage archives for Nov 14th gets a 302 temporary redirect, the tour page freezes the browser.  On the Facebook page a vague statement is posted on the 14th, the next update is in the morning of Nov 18th.

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Paris Unity March

Paris Unity March

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January 11 2015

The Interior Ministry estimated 1.2 million to 1.6 million people took part in the March Against Terror.

More than 40 world leaders marched arm in arm. German Chancellor Angela Merkel, British Prime Minister David Cameron, Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, EU parliament president Martin Schulz, Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, European Commission chief Jean-Claude Juncker, Niger’s President Mahamadou Issoufou, French President Francois Hollande, Belgian Prime Minister Charles Michel, Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte, Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, Denmark’s Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt, US Attorney General Eric Holder, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg, European Council president Donald Tusk, Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu, Swiss President Simonetta Sommaruga, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, Albanian Prime Minister Edi Rama, Bosnian Foreign Minister Zlatko Lagumdzija, Croatian Prime Minister Zoran Milanovic, Kosovar President Atifete Jahjaga, Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Lofven, Israeli Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, Moroccan Foreign Minister Salaheddine Mezouar, Emirati Foreign Minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed al-Nahyan, Tunisian Prime Minister Mehdi Jomaa, Greek Prime Minister Antonis Samaras and Gabonese President Ali Bongo.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was uninvited.  President Francois Hollande asked him not to come, but he decided to come anyway. That prompted France to invite Palestinian Authority President Mahmood Abbas.

where are

Eric Holder was in Paris for a terrorism summit, but did not join the anti-terrorism march. Kerry was in India.  Only US Ambassador to France Jane Hartley attended the march.

Rally

The Obama administrations is definitely giving us this message:

We are NOT Charlie Hebdo and we distance ourselves from Bibi’s psychopathic actions.